Soil biology is the key to rapid mitigation of climate change, through carbon sequestration into the soil.
Soil organic matter is composed of soil microbes including bacteria and fungi, decaying material from once-living organisms such as plant and microbes and other decomposed materials, known as humus. Soil organic carbon (SOC) levels are directly related to the amount of organic matter contained in soil and SOC is often how organic matter is measured in soils.
Soil organic carbon is residue from the interactions of several ecosystem processes, of which photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition are key.
Photosynthesis is the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into plant biomass. SOC input rates are primarily determined by the root biomass of a plant, but also include extrudates, leaves and other litter from plants.